The war became a permanent fishery for the Turks and was conducted for the sake of robbery. In the war, the khan and his entourage, as well as the heads of the families who supplied the soldiers, were rich. The concentration of wealth in the hands of heads of clans, the occupation of new lands by captive slaves, and the natural increase in population, led to the growth of parturition into tribes, which in turn were united in alliances to protect their interests and preserve territorial possessions and livestock.
The primary unit of the Turkic society was the “Oguz” community and the tribes differed in the number of Oguzes and the names they received. Thus, the Tokuz-Oguz (9 communities) designated Uighurs, Uch-Oguz (3 communities) – Karluks. The result was the formation of such peoples as Uighurs, Karluks, Nushibis, Khitan, Guz and Komans (Polovtsians).
The entry of Central Asia into the Turkic Khaganate had its positive aspects. The Turkic rulers provided the necessary rest to the edge and did not interfere in the internal affairs of the conquered peoples. Sogdian cities and the cities of the Fergana Valley practically retained their independence, only paid tribute to the beks and khans.
The Great Silk Road also worked effectively. A huge flow of silk, velvet, brocade, other fabrics, jewelry, glass and leather goods was delivered by caravans from China to Byzantium and back, settling along the road to Bukhara, Samarkand, Tashkent, Merv, Kashgar, Suyab, Kucha, Turfan.
Under the Turkic Khaganate, the original economic mechanism developed in Central Asia was further consolidated, which helped the Turks to adapt and survive in the boundless steppes: a combination of the lifestyle of the nomadic horde and the sedentary farmer, the peaceful and mutually beneficial neighborhood of a nomad warrior with a rich urban merchant and artisan.
Culturally and spiritually, the Turks fed on ideas and traditions that originated in Central Asia or brought here from India and the Middle East. So gradually the synthesis of cultures formed, which in the future formed a separate Central Asian culture. This caused the alienation of the Turks from China, although they had close ties with China, and this was also an insurmountable barrier to the spread of Chinese cultural influence on the culture of Central Asia.
In this historical period, in the territory of Central Asia, there is a lively construction of new cities and the improvement of old ones. So in Varakhsha (near Bukhara) there were already 12 irrigation canals. Twice a month bazaars were arranged here, and at the end of the year the bazaar worked for 20 days. The same lively trade was observed in other cities of Central Asia, especially in the Zeravshan valley. Paikend was called the “city of merchants”, about Samarkand the Chinese traveler Wai Jie wrote: “… the inhabitants are all skilled traders; when the boy turns five, he is taught to read; when he begins to read, he is forced to learn business; profit is highly valued by most residents. “
In the social structure of the population, there have also been significant changes. Written sources report “dehkans and noble people” who enjoyed great power and great influence and who often owned large cities.
Almost all cities and rural areas of the Turkic khaganate had their rulers, who wore loud titles of “kings”. In a number of places the post of “tsar” was hereditary, and sometimes in one locality there were several “kings” at once. Therefore, when the “kings of Sogd” are spoken, this means that in different localities of Sogd there were “kings” whose power was fragile – they could easily be overthrown and replaced with new ones. Each of these “kingdoms” was a small possession in the form of a fortified city with a small district.
The Turks created a powerful state, the strength and influence of which was especially felt at the end of the VI. and the beginning of the VII century. The Chinese historian wrote: “Never, in ancient times, the northern nomadic tribes were not so strong. Almost all the khans married Chinese princesses, and the Chinese court annually donated 100,000 pieces of silk cloth as a gift “(Bichurin).
In scale, the Turkic empire surpassed the Hunnish state, but in 200 years of existence, there were no significant socio-economic changes in it. This conservatism, in the opinion of the Soviet scientist L.N. Gumilev, is explained by the continuous wars waged by the Turks with the Chinese Empire, Iran and the Arab Caliphate. These wars enriched only the top of the military tribal aristocracy and stimulated stagnant phenomena that stopped progress in the development of the productive forces, which led to the defeat of the Turkic Kaganate and its disintegration.
FROM THE BOOK “MY NATIVE HISTORY”
The historian-orientalist Khidoyatov G.М.
(in abbreviation, adapted)