Nukus is the capital of the Republic .At 35km North of Nukus is an ancient necropolis, which occupies an area of about 100 hectares. Its age, according to scientists, is 2,000 years old. The place is full of mystery and mysticism. The sacred “Avesta” mentions the city of Mazda, built in honor of Ahura Mazda – the sun-god worshipers. Thousands of pilgrims visiting the necropolis Mizdahkan believe that here is the tomb of Adam, and erected over it a mausoleum – a “world clock” counting down the life of mankind. Each year, from the ancient walls of brick falls on one, and when the last fall, the end of time. But pilgrims stack of fallen stones small pyramid, hoping for the continuation of life and the fulfillment of their desires.
Until 1990, the city was located on the shore of the Aral Sea, Lake, but as a result of lowering of the water level in the basin of the lake-sea on 14,5m, stepped away from the shore Muinak at 150km, and since the city the entire industry has been focused on fisheries activities (500 thousand. quintals of valuable species of fish were caught per year), Muinak lost its importance in the national economy. Now it is notorious for the whole world with their “graveyard” ships – the result of mismanagement and thoughtless human activities related to environmental ecology.
In 1878, the territory that was located on the right bank of the Amu Darya entered the Amudarya department as part of the Syrdarya province of the Turkestan governor general, and in 1920 it was transformed into the Amudarya region of the Turkestan ASSR. In 1924 the Karakalpak Autonomous Region entered the Kazakh SSR. In 1930, the region was part of the RSFSR. And only in 1932 – received the status of the Karakalpak Autonomous Republic, and in 1936 the AR became part of the Uzbek SSR.
The republic includes 15 districts and 12 cities.
The sands of Kyzyl-Kum desert located in the southeast of Karakalpakstan ,southern part of the Arl Sea located in the North of the Republic , and the Ustyurt plateau and the Amudarya river delta- in the northwest. There are also small mountain massifs on the territory of the republic – Sultan-Uvays – the largest. At its foot is the nature reserve Badai-Tugay.
The Amu Darya is the only river in the territory of Azerbaijan, its delta is numerous channels, small lakes, rich tugai and reed thickets, wetlands. The main territory of irrigated land and irrigation canals are located on the right bank of the river delta.
The sharply continental climate implies a snowless and cold winter, hot and dry summers. The minimum precipitation falls mainly in the autumn-winter period.
The territory of Karakalpakstan began to be populated at the end of IV at the beginning of the II millennium BC. The written sources found during excavations of the Koy-Krylgan-kala (religious construction) point to the IV century BC. The fortress palaces: Toprak-kala, Gyaur-kala and others, date back to the late Antiquity of the IV-III centuries BC. By the end of the XVI century, the written sources of Central Asia already mention the Karakalpaks.
Central Asian racial groups with a Mongoloid admixture are Karakalpaks, the ethnogenesis of which dates back to the numerous tribes inhabiting the steppe plains of the Aral Sea and the delta regions of the Syr Darya River. In the XVI century and until the middle of the XVIII century the Karakalpaks already had a semi-settled way of life. The main activities were agriculture, cattle breeding, fishing. The beginning of the XIX century was marked by the final migration of Karakalpaks to the territory of the delta of the Amu Darya River.
The Karakalpak language is the Kypchak subgroup of the Turkic group of the Altai family.
Religion is Sunni Muslims.
Originally, the traditional dwelling of Karakalpak was a yurt (felt tent), where in winter it was warm and in summer it was cool. Nowadays it is a kind of rural summer house.
Agriculture of the Republic of Azerbaijan is oriented to cotton, rice, melons and vegetables, and produces licorice on a large scale.
The land of Karakalpakstan is favorable for growing rice, which is sown in the Northern regions of the Republic. Cattle breeding is also developed here. In the South – specialize in the cultivation of cotton and silkworm breeding. Water scarcity, scorching heat in the summer, very cold winters, a large concentration of salt in the soil create many difficulties in cultivating land for crops.
On the vast pastures of the Kyzyl-Kum desert – camel breeding and Karakul sheep breeding are widely developed. Fish-breeding farms, herd horse breeding, cattle breeding are represented in the coastal strip.
The subsoil is rich in deposits of gas, phosphorites, iron, granite and marble, glauber and salt, kaolin and bentonite clays.
Leading industries – cotton gin and cotton (processing of cotton seeds). Also well developed are metalworking, electric power, textile, food. The largest enterprises are the soda plant in Kungrad and Takhiatashskaya GRES. On the territory of Karakalpakstan are the gas pipeline routes.
Since ancient times the Karakalpak people have developed applied art: carpet weaving, embroidery, embossing on the skin, carving with wood and inlay. These traditions remain in our days.
The modern city of Nukus, the capital of the Karakalpak AR, is located in the Southern part of the modern delta of the Amu Darya, among sandy areas. This is the center of the economic, administrative and cultural life of the republic. Through the city there is a large trunk canal Kyzketten and highways connecting all regions of the republic. Large industrial enterprises, cultural, educational and scientific institutions are concentrated here. A branch of the Academy of Sciences of Uzbekistan, a branch of the Academy of Arts, the Union of Architects, Writers, and Composers work. The State University, the Pedagogical Institute and other higher educational institutions function.