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TOUR TO FERGANA VALLEY

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Tour to FERGANA


Since ancient times people call the Fergana valley “Golden Valley”, not because gold mine here, but because it is the land of plenty with favorable climatic conditions, fertile soils, powerful streams of water flowing down from the mountain ranges. The cup shaped valley surrounded by the Tien Shan to the north and the Pamir-Alai mountain system – from the south. One of the great rivers of Central Asia – the Syr Darya is formed by the confluence of two rivers: Naryn and Kara Darya, rolling their waters on the territory of the valley, the area is equal to 77,900 square kilometers. This region started to grow roots people still in VI-V centuries BC. In the ancient Persian and Greek chronicles referred to the high culture of the region’s development and chroniclers called it “garden of Eden” because of the abundance of flowering gardens. Ancient Fergana grown mainly grapes and alfalfa. It is these cultural and special breed of horses were popular in the neighboring countries, especially in China. In turn, the residents of the ancient valley borrowed from Chinese silk. After the Fergana valley along the Silk Road from China to the Mediterranean countries, until the sea route to India was opened (XV century). From that time I began the gradual decline of the economy and culture. The final desolation edge came after the invasion of hordes of Genghis Khan. Only in the XVI renewed trade relations with nomadic peoples. From XVII Fergana starts trading with Moscow, and in the XVIII century unfolded trade with China, Afghanistan, Khiva and Bukhara. In 1875 Ferghana region – the last stronghold of the Kokand Khanate – was colonized by Tsarist Russia troops. From Russian “came” to the edge of the railroad and high-value are cotton, horticulture, viticulture and sericulture. The Ferghana Valley, like the rest of Central Asia become a raw materials appendage of the textile industry in Russia. Only after the civil war opened up opportunities for the development of productive forces and the development of the regional economy. In connection with the national delimitation, held in 1924, the territory of the Ferghana Valley was divided between Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan. The central, most flat part where the Uzbek population dominates, attributed to Uzbekistan. Nowadays agriculture Fergana valley stands out among the other regions of the country high culture, productivity and yield (base – cotton). Enterprises in the region carried out a full cycle of processing of cotton – from cleaning to the production of textile, knitwear and garments. A great place is the mining and metal industry. Well known for the Ferghana Valley for its oil and gas fields, and Fergana oil refinery – the largest in Central Asia.


KOKAND


The earliest mention of the Kokand related to X a. Arab geographers travelers write about a small town or Hokand Hovakand, which was located on the site of the present Kokand. Later, apparently, it went into decline and disappeared. Secondary City originated in 1732 on the site of the fortress Claims-mound that emerged in the XVIII century. Having become the capital of the Khanate of Kokand, the city became a major trade and political center not only of the Ferghana Valley, but also throughout Central Asia. Kokand remained the administrative center and some time after Russia’s accession to the Khanate. Part of the city was built in the European manner: the right layout of streets, their landscaping, well-appointed home. More than 300 mosques and madrassah (spiritual and parochial schools) rises majestically above the throng shacks poor people, but blazed his lush luxury palace, one of the last rulers of Kokand – Khudoyarkhan.

Basic historical architectural objects

  • Norbutay-Biy madrasah (XVIII c.)
  • Juma-mosque (the 1st part of XIX c.)
  • Madarikhan mausoleum (the 1st part of XIX c.)
  • Dakhmai-Shakhon mausoleum of Kokand Khans dynasty (the 1st part of XIX c.)
  • Urda – the palace of the last Kokand Khan – Khudoyarkhan (the 2nd part of XIX c.)

RISHTON


Rishton (34km). It is an ancient settlement, known since the Middle Ages have always been famous for its pottery. From generation to generation the secrets of home-made dishes, pitchers, vases, etc. Products Rishtan ceramics has repeatedly demonstrated at the international exhibitions and exhibited in many museums. A wonderful souvenir of the Ferghana Valley.

Basic historical architectural objects

  • Visit to the sale off – exhibition of ceramic wares

FERGANA


Fergana city – the administrative center of the Fergana valley (50km). To build up the city began in 1877 after the accession of Russia to the valley and then called New Margilan. Then it was renamed – Skobelev and became the military and administrative center of the Fergana region. From the beginning, the city was well laid out and beautifully landscaped. In 1919 he received its present name – Fergana.

Basic historical architectural objects

  • City tour
  • Museum of regional ethnography

KOKAND


The earliest mention of the Kokand related to X a. Arab geographers travelers write about a small town or Hokand Hovakand, which was located on the site of the present Kokand. Later, apparently, it went into decline and disappeared. Secondary City originated in 1732 on the site of the fortress Claims-mound that emerged in the XVIII century. Having become the capital of the Khanate of Kokand, the city became a major trade and political center not only of the Ferghana Valley, but also throughout Central Asia. Kokand remained the administrative center and some time after Russia’s accession to the Khanate. Part of the city was built in the European manner: the right layout of streets, their landscaping, well-appointed home. More than 300 mosques and madrassah (spiritual and parochial schools) rises majestically above the throng shacks poor people, but blazed his lush luxury palace, one of the last rulers of Kokand – Khudoyarkhan.

Basic historical architectural objects

  • Norbutay-Biy madrasah (XVIII c.)
  • Juma-mosque (the 1st part of XIX c.)
  • Madarikhan mausoleum (the 1st part of XIX c.)
  • Dakhmai-Shakhon mausoleum of Kokand Khans dynasty (the 1st part of XIX c.)
  • Urda – the palace of the last Kokand Khan – Khudoyarkhan (the 2nd part of XIX c.)

MARGILAN


Margilan – is one of the ancient towns in Central Asia which has preserved the medieval atmosphere till now. It is 6 km. away from Fergana and is well-known since ancient ages for its natural silk manufacture. Margilan silk was carried by merchants along the Great Silk Road to Bagdad, Kashghar, Khorasan, Egypt and Greece. In annals of the 10th century it was preserved one note: “The cost of one length of Margilan silk is amount of the cost of Bukhara estates”

Basic historical architectural objects

  • Shoda mosque (XIX c.)
  • Visit to the souvenir’s factory – an acquaintance with the process of manual production of natural silk(“Khan-satin”)

KUVA


Kuva – is a modern town where an ancient settlement is located. Its total area is 150000 sq. m. This is shakhristan (the town inside of fortress walls) and citadel. It was named Kubo and it was arised on the territory where the first settlements were established in IV-III cc. B.C. The special popularity has been granted to the discovery of Buddhist complex which includes the temple and the shrine of Buddha. The broken statue of Buddha was found here, too.

Basic historical architectural objects

  • Visit to the excavations of an ancient settlement Kubo (IV -III.)

RISHTAN


Rishtan – is a town which is well-known in the world owing to its handicraft ceramic wares. The skilled craftsmen give the secretes of handicraft from generation to generation. Nowadays, one can see many small workshops working with an ancient technology employment.

Basic historical architectural objects.

Visit to the sale off – exhibition of ceramic wares..

Tour to FERGANA region


Fergana Viloyat was formed in 1938 year

Tour of the Fergana Valley.
Area – 6.76 thousand km2

The administrative center is the city of Fergana (419 km from Tashkent).
Fergana Valley is unique in its types of landscapes: here are the dark gray sands of the Central part, and emerald green cotton fields that border the mulberry trees, and alpine meadows and mountain peaks covered with snow. Viloyat is located in the south of the Ferghana Valley. By densely populated area this area is second only to the Andijan region. A large number of rivers and grandiose irrigation structures (the South Fergana, the Great Fergana Canal and several reservoirs) have turned the valley into a paradise – the “pearl” of Uzbekistan.
The climate here is the most mild in the region of the republic. Summer with moderate heat (+ 400С + 420С), severe winters do not happen here. Atmospheric precipitation is low.
Leading role in agriculture is cotton growing, but beekeeping, silkworming, vegetable growing, and melon growing are well developed. Animal husbandry specializes in the cultivation of meat and dairy cattle. Sheep breeding is developed in foothill areas.
From the depths of the region, gas and oil, building sands, limestone and gravel-sand mixtures, cement raw materials are extracted.
In the region, industrial enterprises for the production of mineral fertilizers, for the processing of oil are widely operating; Branches of the national economy: machine-building, chemical, building materials, textile, food, consumer goods.
Higher educational institutions of the region represent the State University, branches of Tashkent HEIs, the Pedagogical Institute.
The city of Fergana is a garden city. Picturesque avenues of century-old plane trees, huge willows and poplars create in the streets of the city a kind of covered galleries, woven crowns supporting the microclimate in the summer heat.


Fergana was founded in 1877 under the name of New Margilan, in 1907 the city was renamed Skobelev and only in 1919 it became known as Fergana. There are no ancient historical monuments, but the suburbs are known for their picturesque places not only in Uzbekistan. So in the valley of the river Shakhimardansay, on the slopes of the Alay mountain range is located the mountain climate resort (mild climatic conditions, curative clean air) “Hamzaabad”.


In the central part of the valley of the Altyaryksa River, in the foothills of the Alai Range, lies the small town of Chimion, surrounded by greenery of vineyards and gardens. Here there is a balneological sanatorium “Chimion” – a well-known health resort in Central Asia (healing mineral springs).
6 km separate Fergana from the ancient city of Margilan. Many centuries ago the population of the city was engaged in cotton growing and sericulture, which provided for its stable development. Long since the cocoons of mulberry were processed and silk fabrics were produced. Not in vain Margilan is called the city of silk. Created by skilled craftsmen, silk fabrics are known all over the world and are in great demand.
Tour of the Fergana Valley can be held on different topics. After all, the region is famous for its gastronomy and folk art.



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