In 750 year in the Arab Caliphate came to power Abbasid dynasty, leading its origin from the uncle of the prophet Muhammad-al-Abbas of the Meccan family Hashimi. The new caliphs faced acute opposition from the opposition at their court, as well as from the rulers of certain regions. They had to fight the performances of the conquered peoples and attempts heretical deviations in Islam. The political unity of the Caliphate became weaker, the real power of the Abbasids remained only in Iraq. In Spain, one of the branches of the Umayyads was established, in North Africa the power was seized by Fatimids (Fatima – the prophet’s daughter), in Baghdad – Buids.
The Abbasids have changed the nature of government. They took into account the multinational nature of the vast Empire and sought to involve in the management of the provinces not Arab governors, and hereditary rulers of the local aristocrats, familiar with the local conditions and enjoy the trust of the population. Of course, the main condition was boundless devotion to the ruling dynasty of the caliphs and Islam.
So the Caliph Mamun was in every way to promote the family of the Samanids from Balkh. The founder of the genus Saman-Khudat was the ruler of the village of Saman in Balkh and showed loyal feelings by adopting Islam. His grandchildren, who took part in the suppression of popular uprisings and for military service, were appointed rulers of Samarkand, Fergana, Tashkent and Herat. But the luckiest of them were Ahmad, a survivor of brothers and taken possession of their inheritance rightfully received from the Caliph, and in 875 year his son Nasr received a Charter to control all of Maverannakhr, which became the core of the Samanid empire.
Do not rely on the loyalty of the provincial rulers, the Abbasids built in unreliable areas special military stratum of “fighters for the faith” (ghazis). Ghazi became almost a separate social class, which created its own corporate organization. Commanders of such squads enjoyed great influence and often sought high positions in the Caliphate.
Having achieved power, some of them became rebels, trying to seize power in some provinces of the Caliphate. This rebel bar and went out the saffarid dynasty. Their rapid rise seemed Caliph dangerous to his power and he decided to eliminate the Safaris, and at the same time and experience Samanids. In 900 year on the border with Balkh there was a battle between the troops of two dynasties. The safaris were defeated and the Samanids proved their loyalty to the Caliphate. Until the end of his life Ismail Samani (892-907 years – the period of rule) remained a loyal subject of the Caliph.
After defeating the Safaris, the Samanids became rulers of a vast Empire stretching from Urgench to the borders of India and from the Syr Darya to Isfagan. Samanids reach the top of their power under Ismail Samani.
Samanids were the creators of the first centralized feudal state in the territory of Mawarannahr. They formed a complex system of bureaucratic control by the state. When Ishmael was established 10 administrations (divans). Finance, public property, guards, the Waqf (charity for the benefit of the clergy), judicial Affairs, post office, public Affairs and others. The provinces had exactly the same provincial offices. This system contributed to the formation of a powerful stratum of the serving feudal nobility. All provincial officials were appointed personally by the Governor, besides positions were on sale, and some passed by inheritance, say, a position of the vizier, Hakim (the head of area, the area), Raisa (the mayor). Great honor, because of the high salaries and the possibility of rapid advancement, enjoyed army positions.
The Samanids ‘ rule is marked by the appearance of a powerful stratum of large land owners. In this regard, the documents of the epoch of the Samanids often meet the expression “the noble farmers” or “strong farmers” refers to large landowners.
Ismail Samani also patronized trade, seeing it as the best means of spreading and popularizing Islam. He reduced burdensome taxes and fees to a minimum. In an effort to ensure regular tax revenues to the Treasury of the Baghdad rulers (caliphs), Samanids took vigorous measures to develop agriculture and streamline land and water relations. A set of rules was drawn up – “the book on irrigation ditches”, which for 200 years was actually the only guide in the analysis of disputes on water use.
Large funds have been allocated for irrigation. Khalifa personally donated a large sum (loot them in the same Maverannahr) to carry out a large ditch in Tashkent that existed prior to the XIII century Samarkand was built the aqueduct of brick, the bottom of which was covered with lead. This unique aqueduct supplied the city until the Mongol invasion in the XIII century, a Great achievement was the invention of water-lifting structures, the first chigiri (water-lifting wheel). In this regard, there was a sharp increase in irrigated areas.
Maverannahr under Samanids turns into a developed craft and industrial center of the East, where goods are produced not only for domestic consumption, but also for export to other countries, namely: soap, popular in all Asian countries, leather, fur, wax, fish glue. The production of brocade and silk fabrics, winter coats of sheep wool, swords, shells, carpets, boats, copper boilers, elegant cups, needles, scissors, high hats and the famous Samarkand paper, which made a revolution in paper production, was in high demand. By the end of X century, silk Samarkand paper completely supplanted papyrus and parchment in Muslim countries.
The leading place in handicraft production received branches of agro-industrial complex: sericulture, cotton production and oil production. Cotton spun yarns and woven various fabrics that are highly valued in the international market. Oil was produced from sesame and cotton seeds.
The constant presence of nomadic pastoralists in Maverannahr created a stable mechanism of interaction between the settled and nomadic population-cattle breeders brought to the bazaars small and cattle, poultry, hunting products, and in return received a horse harness, saddles, clothes, bows with arrows, paints, jewelry, medicines, dishes, wood products, cotton, silk and more. Nomadic pastoralists played a significant role in the development of trade. They undertook to accompany caravans, provided cattle for food and as a vehicle. Entire generations have specialized in the caravan trade.
Under Samanids, the language situation in Maverannahr changed dramatically. Arabic was widely introduced as a language of science and religion, while Persian remained the official and literary language. The ancient language of the local people Sogdian, gradually lost its meaning, and then completely disappeared.
Merv, Bukhara, Samarkand, Urgench gained fame as the world’s centers of science and culture. Arabic gave the opportunity to get acquainted with the achievements of Greek philosophy, and Persian – with Persian poetry and socio-political literature. Bukhara, the capital of Samanids, became the true center of science. Here was a beautiful book bazaars and shops, where he met writers and scholars. Ibn Sina (Avicenna), who found Farabi’s work in one of the bookstores where Aristotle’s teaching was presented, spent his young years here. In the XII century Ibn Sina’s ” medical Canon ” was translated into Latin in 1473 year printed in Milan. “Canon” withstood 30 editions. In the history of medicine Ibn Sina stands next to Hippocrates and Galen, and his work for 400 years served as textbooks on medicine throughout the civilized world.
In the Emir’s palace was one of the best libraries of that time. Here they composed their poems of Rudaki and Dakaki, the historian Narshakhi wrote his most valuable book.
In Maverannahr of the Samanid era, a synthesis of the Greek school of science and philosophy, Arabic geography, Persian history, and Central Asian medical and mathematical schools was formed. A group of talented scientists gathered here.
The beginning of algebra is connected with the name al-Khorezmi. In mathematics, his name remained in the form of the term “algorithm”, and his works “Astronomical tables” and “Treatise on the sundial”, translated into Latin, were a significant milestone in the development of world mathematics and astronomy.
Abu Nasr al-Farabi was a comprehensively educated man of his time, a scientist-encyclopedist. Farabi’s teaching about the cognition of the world was of great importance for the development of natural science concepts of progressive thinkers of Central Asia.
FROM THE BOOK “MY NATIVE HISTORY»
Historian-orientalist Khidoyatov G.A.
(in reduction, adapted)
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