TOUR TO UZBEKISTAN
“Historical and cultural heritage of Uzbekistan”
In the extreme south of the Republic of Uzbekistan is located Surkhandarya region. This is a hollow surrounded by spurs of the Tien-Shan mountain system (ridges – Hissar, Surkhantau, Babatag). The Surkhandarya river valley is the outpost of Uzbekistan: it borders with Tajikistan in the north-east, Turkmenistan with the south-west, and Afghanistan with the south. The northern part of the region is piedmont – with a mild warm climate. It even grows subtropical fruits and sugar cane. The central part of the valley is occupied by irrigated crops of fine-grained cotton, corn, masha, sorghum and in the floodplain of the Surkhandarya River – rice. Karakul sheep graze on the slopes of the hills.
The southern part of Surkhandarya is the hottest place in Uzbekistan – in the summer the temperature is + 50 ° C – a common phenomenon. Here kishlaks (villages) are deprived of typical gardens and vineyards for Uzbekistan. The reason for this is the “Afghan” wind (from Afghanistan). From his hot breath for a few hours, the leaves from the plants wither and fall.
The south of the valley is famous for its oil and gas fields. From the historical point of view, Surkhandarya is an archaeological paradise: caves of the Stone Age, remains of Bactrian palaces and Buddhist temples, mosques and mausoleums of the early Islamic period – traces of civilizations that have passed away into oblivion are everywhere visible. The administrative center of this region is the city of Termez – the southernmost border town of the Republic of Uzbekistan. It is located on the right bank of the Amudarya River, along which the state border with Afghanistan passes. Here is the largest river port of the republic. Not far from Termez, the bridge “Hairaton” (formerly known as “Friendship”) stretches along the two banks of the Amu Darya. It was built by Soviet builders in 1981. The length of the bridge is 816 m. In 1996, the movement was closed by Uzbekistan unilaterally for the sake of state security. In 20 km. To the west of the present Termez on an area of 10 hectares. There are ancient settlements of “old” Termez, formed at the ancient ferry on the bank of the Amu Darya. The foundation of the city dates back to the III – II centuries. BC, when there is a strengthening (kala ‘), surrounded by walls. According to historians in the IV. BC. Here, next to the ferry, was built one of the seven Alexandria, built by Alexander the Great in the territory of present-day Central Asia. In the first centuries of our era, the ancient city is expanding in breadth, it distinguishes residential and industrial quarters, cult complexes, in particular, large Buddhist monasteries. Buddhism came here from India in the I century BC. Much earlier than it spread in China, Korea and Japan. The heyday of medieval Termez begins in the 10th-12th centuries, when suburbs are being formed and many civil and religious buildings are being built. Thus, as a result of archaeological excavations, the remains of the palace of the Termez rulers (XI-XII centuries) were uncovered. The city dies under the Mongol conquest at the beginning of the 13th century, but again folds to the east of the original in the 15th century.
In the 200-km. From the Termez to the north-west is the Kashkadarya region. It is a valley located along both banks of the Kashkadarya River. From the east it is restricted by the spurs of the Hissar Range, from the north by the Zeravshan (Pamir-Alai Mountain System). It perfectly combines snow-capped mountain peaks with numerous waterfalls from shallow mountain streams and fragrant valleys, waterless steppes and sand dunes, brought from the desert located on the territory of Turkmenistan. The region is rich in minerals, in particular, oil deposits. The administrative center of the region is the city of Karshi. It is a modern industrial center of Uzbekistan, which has a long history. The second city in size and historical significance of Kashkadarya is Shahrisabz – the birthplace of Amir Timur (Tamerlane). In the XIV-XV centuries. It was the main city of the Kesh region, ancestral lands of the Turkic-Mongolian tribe “barlas”, to which the formidable Tamerlane belonged. Under Timur, Shakhrisabz is experiencing an unprecedented heyday and is built up by luxurious monumental buildings. Since the XVI century. The city is gradually declining. At the beginning of the XIX century. Is the seat of the local bek. Now it is a modern city with 25 centuries of the past.
Samarqand – 2750 years
One of the oldest cities in the world (2750 years) is the “Pearl of the East”, as chroniclers and poets of antiquity called it. In our time, Samarkand is the second largest city in the country with a population of more than 500,000 people. It was here, at the most important and busiest intersection of the Great Silk Road – a unique trade caravan road – that the cultures of different civilizations merged throughout the centuries. There was a constant exchange not only of goods, but of historical, cultural and spiritual values. This, apparently, has developed in the people inhabiting our land, tolerance, respect for religious beliefs and the way of life of the peoples of other countries.
City of Tashkent
The capital of the Republic of Uzbekistan. It is a modern metropolis with a population of more than 2,500,000 people, having a 25-century history. But, wars of conquest, clan struggle for power and natural disasters destroyed here many monuments of antiquity. After a devastating earthquake in 1966, the city was practically rebuilt. Tashkent is constantly growing and becoming more beautiful, it is decorated with new parks, fountains, wide modern highways.