Tour to Fergana – “Golden Valley” of Uzbekistan.
Long since the Fergana Valley people call the “Golden Valley” not because there are gold placers here, but because it is a fertile region with favorable climatic conditions, fertile soils, powerful water streams flowing down from mountain ranges. The cup – shaped valley is surrounded by spurs of the Tien Shan from the north and the Pamir – Alai mountain system from the south. One of the largest rivers of Central Asia – Syr Darya is formed as a result of the merger of two rivers: Karadarya and Naryn, rolling their waters through the territory of the valley, the area of which is 77.9 thousand square kilometers. This land began to settle by people in the VI-V centuries. BC. In ancient Persian and Greek chronicles it is said about the high culture of development of the region and chroniclers call it “paradise garden” because of the abundance of flowering gardens. The ancient Ferganians grew mainly grapes and alfalfa. It was these cultures and a special breed of horses that enjoyed popularity in neighboring countries, especially in China. In turn, the inhabitants of the ancient valley borrowed sericulture from the Chinese. Through the Ferghana Valley, the Great Silk Road passed from China to the Mediterranean countries, until the sea route to India (XV century) was opened. From this time, the gradual decline of the economy and culture began. The final desolation of the land came after the invasion of the hordes of Genghis Khan. Only in the XVI century. Trade relations with nomadic peoples are renewed. Since the XVII century. Fergana begins to trade with the Moscow state, and already in the XVIII century. Trade unfolded with China, Afghanistan, Khiva and Bukhara. In 1865, the Fergana region – the last stronghold of the Kokand Khanate – was colonized by the troops of tsarist Russia. With the Russians the “railway” came to the edge of the railway and cotton, horticulture, viticulture and sericulture become highly-traded. Fergana Valley, like all of Central Asia, becomes a raw appendage of the textile industry in Russia. Only after the civil war were the opportunities for the development of production forces and economic development of the region. In connection with the national demarcation conducted in 1924, the territory of the Fergana Valley was divided between Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan. The central, most flat part, where the Uzbek population predominates, is referred to Uzbekistan. In our time, the agriculture of the Fergana Valley stands out among other regions of the country with high culture, productivity and profitability (the basis is cotton growing). Enterprises of the region carry out a full cycle of cotton processing – from cleaning to the production of textile, knitted and garment products. A big place is occupied by the mining and metalworking industry. The Ferghana Valley is well known for its oil and gas fields. There is also a large oil refinery.