ANCIENT KHOREZM AND ITS SECRETS
Khorezm oasis is the oldest cultural center in the West of Uzbekistan and one of the oldest areas of artificial irrigation. The civilization of Khorezm can be traced from the Neolithic (IV – the beginning of the III millennium BC) to the developed Middle Ages (XI-XIII centuries). Written historical information about the Khorezmians reported to us “Avesta” (the first half of the 1st millennium BC), where the name of the country “Hvairizem” occurs. Not far from Urgench (the present regional center of the Khorezm region), on the bank of the Amu Darya (Oaks, Jeyhun) in 1939, the famous Soviet archeologist and orientalist S.P.Tolstov, the first (total 18) parking of a man who lived here at the turn of IV – III millennium BC. All these sites were called Kelteminar culture – a new stage in the development of human society. Ancient Khorezm is also known as the homeland of Zoroastrianism. Of the 63 religious monuments of this religion found all over the world (Iran, India, Afghanistan and Pakistan), 17 of the oldest are located on the land of Khorezm.
On the right bank of the Amu Darya, in the north-west of Uzbekistan, is the Autonomous Republic of Karakalpakstan (ancient Khorezm), covering an area of 165.5 thousand square kilometers, half of which is the Kyzyl-Kum desert.
In the oldest center of irrigated agriculture the population used the waters of the Amu Darya with the help of channels, thanks to which (from the 1st century BC) cities flourished, fields and gardens were green. Until now, only the remains of a small number of fortified cities (“Kaly”) have been preserved. Now this is the land of the desert, the sands of which keep the secrets of the previous civilizations.
It is the capital of the Republic – is known all over the world by the I. Savitsky Museum, where a large and unique collection of Russian avant-garde paintings (early XX century) is collected.
In 35 km. To the North of Nukus is an ancient necropolis, which covers an area of about 100 hectares. His age, according to scientists, is 2000 years. The place is full of mysteries and mysticism. In the sacred “Avesta” is mentioned the city of Mazda, built in honor of Ahuramazda – the solar god of fire-worshipers. Thousands of pilgrims visiting the necropolis of Mizdahkan believe that it is here that Adam’s grave is located, and the mausoleum erected above it is the “World Clock” that counts the life of mankind. Each year, from the ancient walls, one brick falls out, and when the latter collapses, the end of time will come. But pilgrims put small pyramids out of fallen stones, hoping for continuation of life and fulfillment of their desires.
“City of fishermen” – Muynak – is located 190 km from Mizdahkan. Until 1990, the city was located on the shore of the Aral Sea – the lake, but as a result of a decrease in the water level in the sea-lake basin by 14.5 m, the shore retreated from Muynak for 150 km, and since the whole industry of the city was oriented to fishery activity 500 thousand centners of valuable fish were caught per year), Muynak lost its importance in the national economy of the country. Now he is notorious for the whole world with his “cemetery” of ships – the result of an unskilled human activity and thoughtless attitude to the ecology of the environment.