About 610 year in Mecca – the main city of Hijaz, in the South of the Arabian Peninsula began a movement that had huge historical consequences for all mankind. Mecca occupied an extremely advantageous position on the main trade route from Yemen to Syria, in a narrow valley, at a cold source of Land, which could not pass any caravan. Here everything was connected with trade. In the city there was no agriculture, no gardening, no industry and there was a sharp property inequality, relations between rich and poor were strongly aggravated.
It was in Mecca that the founder of Islam, Muhammad, was born, who came from the merchant family of Benu Hashim. He preached the doctrine of the one God, who is merciful and omnipotent, generously distributes blessings, and for this he has the right to obedience and worship of those who believe in him. The basic principle of faith was proclaimed obedience (Arab. – Islam), and the followers of Muhammad called themselves Muslim (Arab. – submissive). The Koran – a collection of “sacred revelations”, which were sent down by Allah Muhammad, asserted the equality of Muslims before God, which should ensure the elimination of existing social injustices. This idea caught on the side of Islam, the great mass of the urban poor Arabian Peninsula.
Islam claimed the autocracy, and evading the guidance of Muhammad was regarded as a betrayal of faith. “Obey Allah and his messenger,” – said in the Quran. All power was regarded as a divine purpose and Muslims were obliged to obey it without question. Every Muslim had to fight for Allah, all those who fell on the battlefield, Islam promised eternal afterlife bliss.
The most important purpose of Islam was to unite all Arab tribes and clans into a single ethnic community United by one faith, one aspiration – it was necessary for major political actions.
The activities of Muhammad, the military successes of his troops attracted more and more supporters and followers. Gradually, all Arabia obeyed his power. Even his enemies came over to his side. The new faith became “closely” within the Arabian Peninsula and Muhammad began preparations for the spread of Islam and his political influence in Syria, but in 632 year he died at the age of 63 years.
The case of Mohammed was continued by the caliphs (Arab. – «deputies.»)
In the middle of the VII century. Arabs complete the conquest of Persia and the extreme Western province of Khorasan turned into a governorship, headed by the Governor-Emir, appointed by the Caliph.
In 651 year Arabs first appeared on the borders of Central Asia (its territory from that time they began to call Maverannahr – “beyond the river” – Amu Darya) – under the walls of Merv, Herat and Balkh. For the first time they were limited to imposing a significant contribution, but since that time Maverannahr becomes the object of Arab expansionist policy. This was expressed in systematic predatory raids, during which the emirs mercilessly destroyed civilians, villages and cities, justifying their terror by Jihad, i.e. the Holy war against the “infidels” and “polytheists”. But under the guise of a” war of faith ” Arab leaders cared primarily about personal enrichment. It was found that one fifth of all the loot was the property of the Caliph and every year the governors of Khorasan sent a separate caravan, accompanied by a magnificent delegation, with solemn ceremonies to send the share of the Caliph in Baghdad – the residence of the Supreme rulers of the Arabs. The second fifth part-belonged to the Emir of Khorasan, the remaining part came at the disposal of military leaders, nobles accompanying the troops, the administration of Khorasan and ordinary soldiers.
Naturally, this gave additional energy to the “fighters for faith” and the entire Arab army readily participated in the campaigns on Maverannahr.
The entire policy in respect Maverannahr was quite simple and boiled down to suppression of any resistance through “the sword, whip and ceasefire.”
With appointment in 708 year the Deputy of Khorasan Kuteiba Ibn Muslim begins systematic, consistent and energetic conquest of Central Asia. Merv (Turkmenistan), he made the basis for the organization of their campaigns, each of which was accompanied by massacres of civilians, robbery of their property and the hijacking of thousands of people. In 709 year he made his first campaign against Bukhara. The people’s militia of Sogdians came to the aid of Bukharans. In the fierce battle for civilisation, the Arabs won and started looting and executions.
The Governor of Paikend was one of the sons of Kuteiba. The Arabs conquered much of the production is not take in the entire Khorasan, writes of the medieval Arab historian At-Tabari. On the next year was conquered Romitan, in 712 year – Bukhara, and in 713 year he makes a trip to Khorezm at the personal request of Khorezmshakh, who wanted to use the Arabs in the fight against his own brother Hurrazada. Kutaiba crushed brother, but forced the Khorezmshah to give the Arabs 10 thousand prisoners, together with their property, as well as to assist in the fight against the ruler Halgerda (near what is now Karachi). After a fierce battle and capture of the city, 4 thousand of its inhabitants were executed.
FROM THE BOOK “MY NATIVE HISTORY»
Historian-orientalist Hidoyatov G.A.
(in reduction, adapted)