The state policy of the Karakhanids opened a new stage in the socio-economic and political development of Maverannahr. Of great importance in this were the following factors: international trade, contributing to the growth of the material power of the state and strengthening the mutual interest of the settled and nomadic population; allocation of significant funds for the maintenance of the state apparatus and the armed forces; integration into the socio-economic structure of the state of the Turkic nomadic tribes, which were the main suppliers of military contingents. A successful combination of these factors created favorable conditions for the rapid rise of the state of Khorezmshakhs, which in the XII-XIII centuries becomes for a short historical moment a great world power.

In the early 70 years of the XI century one of the Seljuk emirs bought a young slave from the Oguz tribe – Anush-Tegin – in the slave market in Kyat (the capital of Khorezm). And as it often happened, the slave quickly moved forward at the court of the Seljuk sultans and was soon appointed to one of the responsible positions – the sultan’s keeper and the bath supplies. And already in 1097 year the Sultan appoints the son of the faithful Anush-Tegin ruler of Khorezm, giving him the title of Khorezmshakh. Since that time the history of the state of the Khorezmshakhs of the Anushteginids begins.




The first Khorezmshakh Muhammad ruled Khorezm for 30 years and was faithful to the sultan of Sanzhar, so after the death of Muhammad, the Sultan without hesitation appointed the successor of his son Atsyz, who did not live up to his hopes. Atsyz until his death (1156 year) fought for the sovereignty and independence of Khorezm from the Seljuks and the Kara-Chinese. The next ruler of Khorezm, Il-Arslan, also had to fight for independence on two fronts, continuing to pay tribute to the Kara-Chinese. His eldest son Tekesh took the throne after the death of his father with the support of the Kara-Chinese, promising them to pay regular tribute, but he did not fulfill his promises and was carried away by aggressive campaigns, adding to Khorezm Nishapur and a large part of Khorasan. Now Tekesh-khan decided to appropriate the titles of “the ruler of the world”, “lord of the universe” and “master of the world”.

After the death of his brother, Tekesh becomes the owner of a huge state, which included the entire Khorasan, Herat and Merv.

Jend – the “big city”, as noted by medieval travelers, located along the lower reaches of the Syr Darya, was a military-political and economic center even under the Seljukids. Hence the best military units of the army of Khorezmshakhs were subsequently recruited. Here lived mainly Kipchaks – dashing steppe cavalrymen, most of their lives, riding on horses and famous for their swift raids on neighbors. Real steppe Vikings!




Tekesh needed an army to fight the Kara-China, and to marry the daughter of the Kipchak Khan Turkan Khatun to conclude an alliance with the Kipchaks. She brought with her to Khorezm large Turkic tribes of Uranian, Karluks, Ugraks and Khalajes, who became the striking force in the wars of Khorezmshakhs for approval in Maverannahr and in the Middle East.

Under Tekesh, a military feudal organization of the state of Khorezmshakhs was formed. A huge hired army was created, well-trained and armed, consisting mainly of Turkish soldiers.

Formed military units on a tribal basis. Everyone from childhood was trained in horse riding and possession of weapons. The constant strength of the army reached 150,000 mounted warriors, another 200 thousand could be collected in a few days – they formed a reserve. In addition to regular units, the Khorezmshakhs had a personal guard consisting of Mamluks (slave warriors). It numbered 10 thousand people and its functions included the protection of Khorezmshakh and his family, although often it was used for punitive expeditions and for escorting trade caravans.

In the event of an enemy invasion, fortified citadels were created. The strongest of them was Khazarasp – the storage of the arsenal and the main barracks of the main part of the army. One Arab writer wrote that “its inhabitants were born under the Star” Battle “and nurtured with milk copies and swords.”

The main department of the state of Khorezmshakhs was the office, which was headed by a vizier, who enjoyed the greatest influence after the ruler. In his conduct was domestic and foreign policy, “personnel policy” and virtually the fate of all officials depended on his will. He controlled the tax administration and the treasury and had to always be with the ruler who felt that so the vizier was less dangerous to him. The decisive role in the selection of the Vizier was played by the possession of Arabic or Persian languages ​​and therefore the vizier of the Khorezmshakhs, as a rule, belonged to the Arab-Persian serving officialdom. Among them was not a single representative of the Turkic nobility.




The subject of special concern for the Khorezmshakhs was trade. The decree of Tekesh was preserved in which it was prescribed to treat equally all merchants – distant and close, Turks and foreigners, not to interfere with trade transactions, provide safety on the roads, protect merchandise and life of merchants from robbery and violence. Well-organized protection of roads and caravan routes stimulated the development of domestic and foreign trade. It is known that Khorezm merchants with their goods reached Andalusia and China. Huge benefits to the Khorezm merchants brought trade with the South-Russian principalities. From there came furs (foxes, wolves and beavers), as well as various goods produced in Russian cities. Trade with China grew, especially after the XII century for some time the sea route to China from the Persian Gulf was closed and the whole stream of goods from the west poured into China through Khorezm. For almost fifty years Khorezm has become an important region in the trade of the whole world with China, and thanks to its advantageous geographical location, two cities have acquired special significance – Gurganj and Jend. They were located at the intersection of important routes of communication and became centers of international trade. The development of trade stimulated the growth of cities and the development of handicraft production. In Khorezm, the art of artisans of the most diverse countries accumulated and at the same time a large number of own craftsmen appeared whose products were highly valued in all parts of the East.

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